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C# Fundamentals - Generics

C# Fundamentals - Generics

Generic classes and methods provide us mainly three things :
1) Reusability
2) Type safety (certain value will not show undefined behavior)
3) Efficiency
It is similar to templates in C++ but it does not provide the same flexibility as that of templates.
Generics allow you to write a class or method that can work with any data type. When the compiler encounters a constructor for the class or a function call for the method, it generates code to match with the specified data type.
Let's look at a generic class called 'Node'.
public class Node<T>
   private Node<T> next;
   private T data;
   public Node(T t)
       data = t;
   public T GetData(){ return data; }
   public Node<T> GetNext(){ return next; }
   public void SetNext(Node<T> node){ next = node; }
We will now see what all of that means.
public class Node<T> 
Where T is a placeholder for any data type (int,float,string,user-defined...etc).
It's a good idea to always have the type parameter start with a 'T', it's good practise.
Good examples : TtypeA, Tvar, Ta... or just T😊.
Bad examples : type1, A, B...etc.
  private T data;
  public Node<T>(T t)
     data = t;
Here we have a private data member called data of type 'T'.
And we have a parameterized constructor which takes in a variable of type t, then assign that to member 'data'.
public T GetData(){ return data; }
public Node<T> GetNext(){ return next; }
public void SetNext(Node<T> node){ next = node; }
Now we have a set of functions that do what you think they'll do.
GetData() - returns the member 'data'.
GetNext() - returns the member 'node', which is another Node of the same type.
SetNext() - sets the member 'node' with whatever Node variable of  the same type that was passed in as argument.
It is also useful for an interface to define constraints for the generic types it uses
public interface ICoolInterface<T> where T : IAnInterface<T>
this can also be used with classes deriving from interfaces.
public class Node<T> where T : IAnInterface<T>
Here is the entrie source code for an example program dealing with generics. For more information you can check out microsoft's intro to generics HERE.
For More C# Tutorials, go HERE


Assets Worth Checking Out


Curved Surface Shader [ Unity Implementation ]

Curved Surface Shader This is the shader that we will be having at the end of this tutorial.
 The curved surface shader is capable of achieving really varied visual effects from showing space-time curve due to gravity to a generic curved world shader that is seen in endless runners like Subway Surfers.
The concepts that you learn here can open you up to a new way of looking at shaders and if you didn't think they were the coolest thing ever already, hopefully let this be the turning point.😝.

Both the examples show above use the same exact material is just that different values have been passed to the shader.
Start by creating a new unlit shader in Unity and we will work our way from there.
First we define what the properties are:
_MainTex("Texture", 2D) = "white" {} _BendAmount("Bend Amount", Vector) = (1,1,1,1) _BendOrigin("Bend Origin", Vector) = (0,0,0,0) _BendFallOff("Bend Falloff", float) = 1.0 _BendFallOffStr("Falloff s…

Introduction To Replacement Shaders & Shader Keywords

What is a replacement shader? A replacement shader is a shader that gets applied to every object being rendered.
Since the camera determines what objects end up being shown on screen, The functionality for setting up replacement shaders are in the camera class as well.

A good use case of a replacement shader would be in making effects like SSAO.
Here we need access to the normals and the depth information so a replacement shader that displays only the normals can be rendered ( stored in a render texture ) and then another shader that displays the depth information ( stored in a render texture ) and then the final image is rendered with the SSAO effect by taking the two render textures as input and doing a bunch of calculations.

Another use case would be to visualize the environment differently for various reasons like how they did in City Skylines.

The function that performs shader replacement is:
Camera.SetReplacementShader( Shader shader, string replacementTag ) Takes in a shader as …

Toon Liquid Shader - Unity Shader

Toon Liquid Shader This is how the shader will end up looking :
This shader is pretty neat and somewhat easy to implement as well as to understand. Since we will be adding some basic physics to the toon water as it is moved about we will have to support that in the vertex shader as well.
So let's start by looking at the properties :
Properties { _Colour ("Colour", Color) = (1,1,1,1) _FillAmount ("Fill Amount", Range(-10,10)) = 0.0 [HideInInspector] _WobbleX ("WobbleX", Range(-1,1)) = 0.0 [HideInInspector] _WobbleZ ("WobbleZ", Range(-1,1)) = 0.0 _TopColor ("Top Color", Color) = (1,1,1,1) _FoamColor ("Foam Line Color", Color) = (1,1,1,1) _Rim ("Foam Line Width", Range(0,0.1)) = 0.0 _RimColor ("Rim Color", Color) = (1,1,1,1) _RimPower ("Rim Power", Range(0,10)) = 0.0 } Just the usual stuff that we are used to. The only thing that may stand out is the [HideInInspector] tag, This works j…

How To Animate A Fish Swimming With Shaders

Animate Fish Swimming With Shaders We are going to make swimming animation by using only shader code.
By the time we are done, it's going to look like this.
You will probably need the fish model used in this tutorial, that can be found HERE. Can use your own model but the shader code might have to be modified accordingly because of the orientation of the model that you might be using ( issues with whether the X axis & Z axis is flipped ).
The shader used way out performs a similar scene with skeletal animations applied on the fish models.
On a previous benchmark I did comparing the shader animation with the skeletal animation there was a difference of 28 FPS( on average ) with 50 fish.
The shader we are going to make is really powerful and flexible and don't think that it's limited to making fishes swim😀.

So this mesh oriented like this when imported into unity and this is important to understand because this means that the model's vertices have to be moved along the X-…

Access Reflection Probe Data For Custom Shaders

The Unity shader documentation regarding reflection probes is pretty minimal and not at all comprehensive.
This short tutorial is intended to bring reflection probe functionalities to the forefront your future shader writing endevors which is a fancy way of saying "Look at this cool stuff and go and use it somewhere" 😏
Here we will try just the bare minimum of making a shader that reflects the cubemap data from reflection probe and displays it on the object.

These reflection probes are basically objects that store a complete image of the environment surrounding it into a cubemap which then can be read by shaders to create various effects.
More information on how reflection probes work in Unity can be found here :
Using Reflection Probes In Unity

I am not going over how to set up Reflection Probes here only how to access them inside our custom shaders.
So this is what we will be making:
The reflection probe takes in the cubemap only if it is within it's range otherwise i…